These include developing robust methods for calculating fines and reimbursement amounts, developing methods for researching and compensating victims, and compiling an inventory of promising correction and compliance measures that may be included in recovery agreements. A DPA is an agreement between a prosecutor and a company that has committed economic crimes. The effect of the Dpa is to suspend pending prosecutions, while setting out certain obligations that the organization must fulfil in order to avoid possible criminal prosecution. These obligations often include fines, remedial measures, an improvement in reporting obligations or the establishment of an independent monitoring of compliance with companies. Once the offending company has met the terms of the CCA, the royalties will be abolished. The rapid implementation of the legislation has deprived Canadians of an in-depth debate on how it has been developed. This has undermined the overall legitimacy of redress agreements. It is time to correct these errors. Moreover, unlike deferred repressive agreements in the United States, ARs are only considered after charges have been laid against offending companies. In addition, the RA regime applies retroactivity, so that ARs are available for behaviors that have already been implemented. RARs are the Canadian equivalent of deferred enforcement agreements in the United States and the United Kingdom and are suspended between prosecutors and prosecuted organizations in which criminal proceedings are completed in exchange for certain conditions.
This new repressive instrument modernizes Canadian employee application and should allow for a more flexible and personalized approach to corporate criminal enforcement. Discussions on the possible implementation of a Criminal Prosecution Act in Canada began in February 2016. Under traditional criminal law, Canadian prosecutors had only two options: “Prosecuting and charging suspected criminals or not deciding to prosecute alleged offenders.”   According to the Law Times, the provisions for deferred prosecution agreements change the way Canadian prosecutors can pursue economic crime by including a redress system in which offenders can escape conviction if they “cooperate with the Crown and the courts.”  The Law Times quoted Ottawa-based lawyer Patrick McCann as saying that the deferred prosecution provisions “reconcile Canada with many other countries that have deferred prosecution agreements, including the United States, the United Kingdom and most other European countries.”  According to McCann, a deferred policing agreement “concerns the injustice of the situation if you have a large company that has an unser serious senior officer,” who has committed a crime that makes the entire company liable.  McCann stated that the deferred policing agreements were fair to investors in companies innocent of any wrongdoing.  The British model is a general principle that data protection authorities are only available in certain circumstances and that, in many cases, prosecutions will continue to proceed appropriately. To date, the scheme has only been applied three times. Q: What does the prosecutor have to do to decide whether negotiations on one of these agreements are offered to a company? The Government of Canada is considering the benefits of implementing a DPA regime, not as a substitute for criminal prosecutions, but as an additional instrument used by prosecutors.
2021年4月9日 12:48 PM 未分類